The sun is the primary source of energy on Earth and sun can be converted directly into electricity using solar panels. Electricity has come necessary in life. It powers the machines that utmost us use daily.
So, what are solar panels? What if you can produce your own?
In this composition, we will show you a straightforward system of erecting your own functional solar panel.
A Solar panel is generally manufactured from six (6) factors videlicet the PV (photovoltaic) cell or solar cell which generates the electricity, the glass which covers and protects the solar cells, the frame which provides severity, the backsheet where the solar cells are laid, the junction box where the wirings are enclosed and connected, and the encapsulant which serves as bonds.
Since utmost people doesn’t have access to outfit in manufacturing solar panels, it’s important to note and understand those six factors in order for anyone to be suitable to plan the accoutrements demanded to produce a do-it-yourself or home- made solar panel.
The accoutrements demanded on how to make a solar panel must be available for purchase locally or online and shouldn’t exceed the cost of a brand new solar panel or doesn’t take a long time to make.
1.) PV Cell
The first thing to consider when erecting your own solar panel is the solar cell.
Photovoltaic (PV) cell or solar cell converts visible light into electricity. One (1) solar cell still isn’t enough to produce a usable quantum of electricity much like the microbot in Baymax ( Idol 6) which only becomes useful when combined as a group. This introductory unit generates a DC ( direct current) voltage of0.5 to 1 volt and although this is reasonable, the voltage is still too small for utmost operations. To produce a useful DC voltage, the solar cells are connected in series and also reprised in modules making the solar panel. If one cell generates0.5 volt and is connected to another cell in series, those two cells should also be suitable to produce 1 volt and they can also be called a module. A typical module generally consists of 28 to 36 cells in series. A 28- cell module should be suitable to produce roughly 14 volts (28 x0.5 = 14VDC) which is enough to charge a 12V battery or power 12V bias.
Connecting two or further solar cells bear that you have a introductory understanding of series and resemblant connection which is analogous to connecting batteries to make up a battery storehouse system.
There are two most common solar cells that can be bought in the request; a monocrystalline cell and a polycrystalline cell. These two can have the same size, 156 mm x 156 mm, but the main difference would be effectiveness. It’s important to buy fresh cells to serve as backup in case you fail on some of the cells i.e. wretchedly solder, broken cell, scratched,etc.
Monocrystalline solar cells are generally black and octagonal in shape. This type of solar cell is made of the loftiest and purest grade silicon which makes them precious. But they’re the most effective of all types of solar cells and are nearly always the choice of solar contractors when space is an important factor to consider in achieving the power they want to attain grounded on their solar system design.
Polycrystalline PV Cells are characterized by their bluish color and blockish shape. These cells are manufactured in a important simpler process which lowers the chastity of the silicon content and also lowers the effectiveness of the end product.
Generally, monocrystalline cells are more effective than polycrystalline cells but this doesn’t mean that monocrystalline cells perform and labors further power than polycrystalline cells. Solar cell effectiveness has commodity to do with the size of the cells and every solar panel or cells have an effectiveness standing grounded on standard tests when they were manufactured. This standing is generally in chance and the common values range from 15 to 20.
The glass protects the PV cells while allowing optimal sun to pass through. These are generally made ofanti-reflective accoutrements. Tempered glass is the choice of material currently indeed for unknown and new manufacturers although there are still those who use flat plate glass on their solar panels. Tempered glass are created by chemical or thermal means and is numerous times stronger than plate glass making it more precious to produce but the price of manufacturing them moment is reasonable and cost-effective. Flat plate glass creates sharp and long shards when broken as opposed to tempered glass which shatters safely in small pieces upon impact, that’s why they also call it safety glass. It should be noted then that utmost unformed solar panels uses flat plate glass because of the way the panel is constructed.
Tempered glass is what manufacturers use in mass producing their Solar. In our DIY design, we suggest to use Plexiglas also called acrylic glass which is safer than the regular normal glass from your original tackle store. It’s a bit precious than regular glass but is rainfall resistant and doesn’t break fluently. The Plexiglas can also be squinched or fused fluently to the frame.
A frame is generally made of anodized aluminum which provides structure and severity to the solar module. These aluminum frames are also designed to be compatible with utmost solar mounting systems and resting outfit for easy and safe installation on a roof or on the ground.
The frame in a plant- erected solar panel is generally the aluminum part where all four sides of the solar panel distance are fitted. Suppose of it as a cadaverous blockish frame. The solar panel distance by the way is composed of the other 4 factors and are concentrated and laminated in the following order from top to bottom; the tempered glass, top encapsulant, the solar cells, nethermost encapsulant, also the backsheet. In our DIY solar panel, we will be using a rustic frame and the end- result would be commodity similar to a picture frame where the picture is the solar cells fused to anon-conductive board, the glass for the Plexiglas top cover, and the rustic part as the frame and backsheet.
The backsheet is the subcaste of plastic film on the reverse face of the module. This is the only subcaste guarding the module from unsafe DC voltage. The main function of the backsheet is to isolate and cover the tutor from shock and give the safest, effective, and reliable electrical conductivity possible.
The backsheet will be a rustic plywood where the frame will be squinched on top and on the sides. It should be noted then that a perforated hardboard (Pegboard) will be used to place and align the PV Cells and this Pegboard will sit on top of the rustic backsheet and fitted inside the rustic frame.
5.) Junction Box
The junction box is where the terminal cables and bypass diodes are located and concealed. The terminal cables are principally the positive and negative cables grounded on the series connections of the PV Cells and can be connected to another solar panel, a charge regulator, a battery system, or to an inverter, depending on the system design. The bypass diode is a defensive medium that help power from getting back to the solar panel when it isn’t producing electricity as in the case when it’s night time.
There are junction boxes designed for plant- erected solar panels that are now available to buy online especially fromChina.However, you can order online and stay for the delivery else you can just buy a regular electrical junction box from your original tackle store, If you aren’t pressed for time. The purpose of the junction box is to cover the outstations ( positive and negative outstations) from water, dust, and other rudiments. This is also where the two cables ( red for positive and black for negative) will be coming from. The other end of these two cables can also be defended by using a PV accessory called MC4 which can also be bought online together with the PV junction box.